"Nobody plans to fail. They just fail to plan"

Driving Risks

Driving gives you the freedom to get around but it also involves certain risks.

   When you’re behind the wheel of a car – whether alone or with passengers – driving safely should always be your top concern. We’re more distracted than ever, so it’s crucial to know the basics of safe driving and practice them every time you’re on the road. Here are some safe driving tips:
Be a thinking driver
    You have to make many choices as a driver. You have to choose the best route to get to your destination, and decide how much time you need to get there.
    A thinking driver puts safety first. Smart driving is about making choices that help keep you and others safe. The choices you make determine what kind of driver you will be.

Be fit to drive
    You need to be in good shape to drive — alert and able to focus. Feeling angry or frustrated can cloud your judgment and slow down your reaction time.
    You need to avoid driving if you have an injury or illness that makes it hard for you to think clearly or quickly.
    Never drive when you are overtired.

Make good decisions
    You have to make quick and accurate decisions when you drive. Will you be tempted to run a yellow light because you are in a hurry?
Keep learning
    You’ll continually learn how to handle new driving situations and conditions and will need to keep informed about changing vehicle technology. You’ll also need to learn about changes that are made to the rules and regulations of the road.
    Your skills as a driver will also change. As you gain experience, your skills will increase, but you may become overconfident and too automatic in your driving. Throughout your driving years, it’s important for you to be honest with yourself about your skills and your readiness to drive.

Plan your driving
    Part of good driving is planning ahead. This means planning enough time to get to your destination and knowing the shortest and safest route.

Predict the scene
    As a driver, you need to be aware of clues in the driving environment: signs, signals and road markings. Paying attention to these clues helps you predict what could happen so you’re prepared to respond. It’s also important to predict what other road users — pedestrians, other drivers, motorcycle riders and cyclists — might do. You can predict what might happen by carefully observing the driving scene around you. Being aware of what others around you are doing will help you to make better driving choices.

Focus on driving
  Keep 100% of your attention on driving at all times – no multi-tasking. 
  Don’t use your phone or any other electronic device while driving. 
  Slow down. Speeding gives you less time to react and increases the severity of an accident. 

Drive “defensively”
  Be aware of what other drivers around you are doing, and expect the unexpected. 
  Assume other motorists will do something crazy, and always be prepared to avoid it. 
  Keep a 2-second cushion between you and the car in front of you.
  Make that 4 seconds if the weather is bad. 

Make a safe driving plan
  Build time into your trip schedule to stop for food, rest breaks, phone calls or other business. 
  Adjust your seat, mirrors and climate controls before putting the car in gear.
  Pull over to eat or drink. It takes only a few minutes.

Practice safety
  Secure cargo that may move around while the vehicle is in motion. 
  Don’t attempt to retrieve items that fall to the floor. 
  Have items needed within easy reach – such as toll fees, toll cards and garage passes. 
  Always wear your seat belt and drive sober and drug-free.

  Don't allow children to fight or climb around in your car – they should
be buckled in their seats at all times. Too much noise can easily
distract you from focus on the road.

Think for yourself
    Another part of making good choices is knowing yourself and understanding the infl uences that shape your driving.
    Influences from other drivers — at times you will feel pressure from other drivers, and you’ll have to decide what to do. Will you base your driving decisions on safety or will you allow other drivers to pressure you into doing something that might be unsafe?
    Influences from the media — think of the images of cars and driving in ads and movies. Do these images generally promote safe driving?
    Influences from peers — other people can influence your driving. Your friends may pressure you to drive faster or to race away from stoplights. You may think it will impress them if you turn up the volume on your car stereo system.

Take responsibility

    It’s important to know and accept the limits of your driving abilities and your vehicle. You also need to take responsibility for developing your driving skills and ensuring your own safety.

What to do after an accident ?

If you're in an accident, first make sure no one in the car is injured.
Next, check on the passengers in the other vehicle, pedestrians and anyone else nearby to make sure they’re OK.
Then do these five things:

  • Stay at the scene
Leaving can result in legal consequences, like fines or additional violations.

  • Call 911 or the local police immediately
They'll dispatch an officer and medical personnel to the scene of the accident. Once the cops arrive, wait for them to complete an accident report.

  • Stay in the car
If you're on a busy highway, stay inside the car and wait for the police or an ambulance. It's dangerous if passengers stand along a freeway or other road with lots of traffic.

  • Stay calm
Don't get into an argument or a fight with the other driver. Simply exchange contact and insurance information. If possible, also get the name and phone numbers of witnesses.

  • Contact your Fleet Manager
He will ask you for any paperwork you fill out or receive about the accident, and will give you important information on what to do next.

What to do when pulled over ?

If you notice that a police car is following you with the lights flashing, pull over to the side of the road safely and quickly. Wait inside your car for the officer to approach, and be prepared to:

  • Turn on the light
Turn on your interior light at night and keep your hands where the officer can see them, preferably on the steering wheel.

  • Keep your hands visible
Don't reach under your seat or into your glove box. This may cause the officer to think you're reaching for a weapon or hiding something.

  • Provide necessary documentation
Give your license and proof of insurance to the officer if asked. If the officer asks you to step out of your car, do so without sudden or threatening movements.

  • Be polite
Stay calm − don't become argumentative, disorderly or abusive − and never attempt to bribe the officer. If a citation is issued, present your story in traffic court if you feel you’ve been unfairly treated. You may be represented by a lawyer and, if necessary, you'll be heard by a judge or magistrate.

Winter Driving

Prevention is better than recovery
Winter driving can be risky, so be prepared.

     Prevent problems before they occur

  1. Get your vehicle ready for winter in the fall.
  2. Install four matching winter tires.
  3. Pack an emergency kit.
  4. Learn and practice winter driving techniques before you need them.
  5. Plan your trip, check road and weather conditions.
  6. Remove all snow from your vehicle before each trip.
  7. Give yourself extra travel time in bad weather.
  8. Avoid using cruise control on slippery roads.
  9. Travel with a fully charged cell phone.
  10. SLOW DOWN and WEAR your seatbelt.
Tip 1: Get ready
Get your vehicle ready for winter

Winter weather is hard on your vehicle and its engine. Prepare for winter in the fall, by getting a complete check-up of your:

Your motor needs a fully charged battery to start in cold weather. Clean battery posts and check the charging system and belts. Have your battery tested in the fall and spring. Replace weak batteries before they fail.

Ignition system
Replace defective ignition wires, cracked distributor caps and worn spark plugs, since they can make starting difficult or may cause a sudden breakdown.

Make sure that all lights work and that headlights are properly aimed.

Check or service your brakes to ensure even braking. Pulling, change in pedal feel, or unusual squealing or grinding may mean they need repair.

Check pressures often, especially before any highway driving. Properly inflated, high quality winter tires will give you best traction on winter roads and increase fuel efficiency.

A tire that has good pressure when checked in a warm garage will be under-inflated when it is below zero outside - because tire pressure goes down in the cold. That is why you should do your checks when the tires are cold. Use the maximum pressure amount shown in the owner's manual or on the doorframe as a guide, but never go above the pressure shown on the tire sidewall. Check your spare tire pressure regularly.
Since having four matching tires improves vehicle handling, don't mix tires with different tread patterns, internal construction and size.
Winter tires have been designed for use in snow. They carry a pictograph on the side-wall of a peaked mountain with a snowflake, meet high standards for winter traction performance and should not be confused with Mud + Snow (M+S) rated snow tires. Winter tires are a good idea, and may even be legally required where you live. To learn more about winter tires, visit: Transport Canada's Winter Tire Safety Tips and Be Tire Smart!.

Since having four matching tires improves vehicle handling, don't mix tires with different tread patterns, internal construction and size.
Winter tires have been designed for use in snow. They carry a pictograph on the side-wall of a peaked mountain with a snowflake, meet high standards for winter traction performance and should not be confused with Mud + Snow (M+S) rated snow tires. Winter tires are a good idea, and may even be legally required where you live. To learn more about winter tires, visit:  Transport Canada's Winter Tire Safety Tips and Be Tire Smart! .

Exhaust system
Check for leaks that could send deadly carbon monoxide into your vehicle.

Heating and cooling system
Check your radiator hoses and drive belts for cracks and leaks. Make sure the radiator cap, water pump and thermostat work properly. Test the strength and level of the coolant/anti-freeze, and make sure the heater and defroster work well.

Windshield wipers
Make sure that your wipers are in good condition. Replace blades that streak. Purchase wipers designed for winter use. Fill up on winter washer fluid in the -40°C temperature range and carry an extra jug in your vehicle.

Tip 2: Watch the weather
It's a good idea to visit www.weatheroffice.gc.ca for local weather reports, before you leave home. Environment Canada issues warnings when it expects blizzards, heavy snow, freezing rain or drizzle, cold snaps and winds.
Blizzards are the worst winter storms. They can last six hours or more and bring: falling, blowing and drifting snow; winds of 40 kilometers per hour or more; poor visibility; and temperatures below -10°C.

Snow and ice are more slippery at 0°C than at -20°C or below.

HEAVY SNOW can bring 10 centimeters or more in 12 hours, or 15 centimeters or more in 24 hours.

Watch for black ice at temperatures between +4°C and -4°C, where the road surface ahead looks black and shiny. It is often found on shaded areas of the road, bridges and overpasses long after the sun has come out.

COLD SNAPS are rapid drops in temperature.
WINDS cause blizzard conditions, drifting, poor visibility and wind-chill effects.

Tip 3: Prepare for Driving
  • The safest strategy is to avoid driving in bad weather conditions. If you must drive, check weather and travel conditions before heading out. Give yourself extra time for travel and, if weather is bad, wait for conditions to improve. Always tell someone where you are going, the route you plan to take and when you expect to arrive. If you don't arrive on time, and people are worried about your safety, they will know where to search for you. If driving becomes too risky, turn back or look for a safe place to stop until it is safe to drive. Make sure you have enough fuel. Try to keep the fuel tank at least half-full.
  • Be alert, well rested and sober behind the wheel and always wear your seat belt. When worn correctly, seat belts save lives. Lap belts should be kept low and snug over the hips, while shoulder belts should always be worn across the chest. Learn more about seat belt safety. Children aged 12 and under should ride in the back seat, safely seated in a car seat or booster seat made for their size and age.
  • See and be seen. Remove all snow from your vehicle's hood, roof, windows and lights. Clear all windows of frost and fog. If visibility becomes poor, find a place to safely pull off the road as soon as you can. It's best to stop at a rest area or exit the roadway and take shelter in a building.

If you can't exit, pull off the road as far as you can. Get out from the passenger side, to reduce the risk of being hit by other drivers. If visibility is poor, put on your emergency flashers.

  • Stay on main roads and drive carefully: Match your speed to the road and weather conditions. Avoid passing another vehicle when weather and road conditions are bad.
  • Wear warm clothes that do not restrict movement.
  • Be prepared to make a call. Take a fully charged cell phone with you. These are very useful in an emergency or if you need help. *911 is often a free call. But don't talk and drive. Let someone with you make the call, or pull over to a safe spot to place a call.

If you do a lot of winter driving in areas with poor reception, think about getting a citizen's band (CB) radio.

Pack a winter survival kit. The Canadian Automobile Association (CAA®) recommends you:
Keep the following items in your trunk.
  • shovel
  • sand or kitty litter
  • traction mats
  • tow chain
  • compass
  • cloth or roll of paper towels
  • warning light or road flares
  • extra clothing and footwear
  • emergency food pack
  • booster cables
  • matches and a "survival" candle in a deep can (to warm hands, heat a drink or use as an emergency light)
  • fire extinguisher
  • extra windshield washer fluid
  • fuel line antifreeze
  • reflective vest
Keep the following items inside your vehicle.
  • road maps
  • ice scraper and brush
  • flashlight
  • first aid kit
  • blanket (special "survival" blankets are best)

In bad weather, put more distance between you and the vehicle in front of you.

Tip 4: Avoid Collisions

The danger of skidding is greatest when you are taken by surprise. Since not all vehicles respond in the same way to icy, slippery roads, learn how to handle your vehicle in all types of weather. Read the owner's manual to learn about your vehicle's braking system and tire traction. You may also consider taking a winter driving course.

In extreme weather avoid using cruise control.

Having the latest safety features on new vehicles and/or knowing how to handle your vehicle are good ways to keep control.

New Safety Features

Electronic Stability Control (ESC) helps drivers avoid crashes. ESC sensors compare the direction of the steering wheel to the direction the vehicle is going. When they are not the same, and the vehicle begins to skid, ESC applies the brakes to one or more wheels, or reduces engine power, or both, to help keep the vehicle under control.
ESC is 'On' when you start your engine. If your vehicle has an ESC 'Off' switch, turn off ESC when you are stuck in deep snow. A dashboard light will remind you to turn it back on.
The only way to get ESC is to buy a new or used vehicle that is already equipped with it. If you are thinking about buying a new vehicle, ask your dealer to show you models with ESC. To learn more, visit www.tc.gc.ca/ESC .

The best way to avoid a skid is by driving at speeds that are safe for the weather and road conditions.

A good way to avoid skidding is to drive appropriately for road and weather conditions: SLOW DOWN. Allow extra travel time and be very careful when you brake, change lanes, make turns and take curves.

Even careful and experienced drivers can skid, so be prepared. Skidding may be the result of panic braking when you are trying to avoid an obstacle on the road. What should you do?

  • Learn to handle a skid. Practice the steps on pages 12 &13 in a safe location, until correcting a skid becomes a reflex - and remember that sometimes the vehicle will skid a second and even a third time before you regain complete control.
  • Avoid forceful braking or sudden, jerking movement of the wheel.

Electronic Stability Control helps to avoid skidding.

When driving on a snow-covered road there may be more snow/slush between lanes than in the lane, making changing lanes more difficult.

Rear-wheel skids

A skid occurs when the rear wheels lock or lose traction. To regain steering control:
  1. Take your foot off the brake pedal, if hard braking causes the rear wheels to skid.
  2. Ease off the gas pedal if the rear wheels lose traction.
  3. Shift to neutral (automatic) or push in the clutch pedal (standard).
  4. Look down the road in the direction you want the front of the vehicle to go, and be aware of the vehicle and how it is responding to your steering.
  5. To regain control, steer gently in the direction you want to go.
  6. Once the vehicle is straight, return to a driving gear.
  7. Accelerate gently.
  8. Drive at a safe speed.

Front-wheel skids
Front-wheel skids are caused by hard braking, acceleration or by driving too fast for the road conditions. You can't steer when the front wheels lose traction. To regain steering control:
  1. Release the brake if the front wheels skid from hard braking.
  2. Ease off the gas pedal if the front wheels lose traction.
  3. Shift to neutral (automatic) or push in the clutch (standard).
  4. Wait for the front wheels to grip the road again.
  5. Select drive (automatic) or release the clutch (standard).
  6. Accelerate gently.
  7. Drive at a safe speed.

Four-wheel skids
Sometimes all four wheels lose traction - generally at high speeds or under poor road conditions. To regain steering control:
To regain steering control:

  1. Remove your foot from the brake or accelerator.
  2. Shift into neutral.
  3. Look and steer in the direction you want the front of the vehicle to go.
  4. Wait for the wheels to grip the road again.
  5. Return to a driving gear.
  6. Drive at a safe speed.

Safe Braking
Proper braking is important to safe winter driving. Since it takes longer to stop on a slippery road, you should:
  • Leave more distance than normal between and your vehicle and the vehicle in front of you.
  • Pay close attention to the road - as far ahead as you can.
If you don't have anti-lock brakes (ABS), the best way to stop on a slippery road is to brake but not so hard that your tires stop turning. If you brake too hard and cause the wheels to lock (stop turning), release the pedal just enough to get the wheels rolling. Then, brake again right away, with slightly less force than before.

ABS is a system that allows you to steer while braking hard.

ABS prevents wheels from locking and allows you to control steering during hard braking. When wheel sensors detect lock-up, the system relieves enough pressure to keep the tires rolling, while you brake hard. You will feel the brake pedal rapidly pulse back against your foot and may hear some mechanical noise. DO NOT lift your foot from the brake or pump the pedal. In an emergency stop, press the brake quickly and hard. The ABS system will NOT shorten stopping distance. For more information on ABS check out the Transport Canada site .

Practice techniques before you need to use them.

Tip 5: Stay Calm

Stay calm if you get trapped in a storm or snow bank

Don't do any heavy lifting, shoveling or pushing in the bitter cold - it can kill. Do make sure the tailpipe is not blocked by snow, to keep carbon monoxide from getting into your vehicle. Then, if your vehicle is not at risk of being hit by other drivers, stay inside so you have shelter. Going out into a storm puts you at risk of getting lost, or suffering from the cold.

You should also:

  • Keep a window on the side sheltered from the wind open a bit, to give you a good supply of fresh air.
  • Run your motor as little as possible.
  • Use a survival candle for heat if you have one, instead of the vehicle's heater.
  • Wear a hat, since you can lose up to 60 per cent of your body heat through your head.
  • Set out a warning light or flares.
  • Put on the dome light. (Overuse of headlights may run your battery down.)
  • Exercise your arms and legs often.
  • Stay awake.
  • Watch for traffic or searchers.

Delivery Persons - General

What do delivery persons do?
This profile refers to delivery persons in general. Delivery persons, couriers or messengers pick up and deliver documents, messages, packages and various other products and deliver it to a different location. Medical samples or hazardous materials may be in the packages that they deliver. The person may also have to collect payment for their delivery service or product delivered (e.g., pizza and other "fast foods", liquor, mobile canteens).

Delivery persons typically have to lift and carry items of different sizes, weights, and shapes such as letters, pizzas, office equipment and supplies, construction supplies, mattresses, or refrigerators.

Much of their work is done:
  • Outdoors so they are exposed to a wide range of weather conditions.
  • Day or night.
  • Deliveries may be taken to potentially hazardous areas like construction sites or residences in high crime rate areas.
What are some health and safety issues for delivery persons?
  • Pain or injury from physical overexertion or repetitive manual tasks.
  • Working alone.
  • Vehicle or bicycle accidents.
  • Slips, trips and falls.
  • Stress.
  • Shift work, late hours, or extended work days.
  • Workplace violence (e.g., bullying, verbal abuse, physical attacks, robbery).
  • If outdoors, exposure to extreme weather temperatures and UV radiation from sunlight.
  • Suspicious mail or packages.
  • Dog bites.
  • Insect stings (e.g., bees, hornets, mosquitoes).
  • Potential of exposure to improperly labelled hazardous chemicals or biological materials (e.g., medical specimens).
What are some preventive measures for delivery persons?
  • Learn about how to avoid musculoskeletal pain or injury from repetitive or physically awkward tasks.
  • Learn safe lifting techniques.
  • Follow a recommended shiftwork pattern and know about risks associated with shiftwork and extended workdays.
  • Keep all work areas clear of clutter and equipment. Items should be stored securely.
  • Keep equipment and vehicles in good mechanical condition and working order. Check your vehicle or bicycle before using it to ensure that it is in good operating condition.
  • Use correct personal protective equipment and clothing, including safety footwear. Personal protective clothing includes high-visibility (HV) clothing.
  • Carry a mobile phone or have another way to stay in contact with your workplace.
  • Use mechanical aids to carry heavy items, where possible.
  • Know how to identify suspicious mail or packages.
What are some good general safe work practices?
Follow safety procedures, where appropriate for the hazard, for:
  • Practice safe lifting techniques and materials handling (lifting, carrying, lowering, etc.).
  • Stay informed about chemical hazards including WHMIS and MSDSs and Transport of Dangerous Goods (where applicable).
  • Be prepared for severe weather conditions (hot/cold) and UV radiation from sunlight.
  • Safe use of vehicles (or bicycles), including using cellular phones and other devices and winter driving.
  • Prevent slips, trips and falls on level ground and stairways.
  • Learn about the risks associated with fatigue.
  • Practice safe work procedures when working alone, off-site, or when handling money.
  • Be aware of ways to prevent workplace violence (e.g., working alone, bullying, verbal abuse, physical attacks, robbery).

  • Know how to report a hazard.
  • Follow company safety rules.

Back Injury - Prevention

What is the most likely kind of injury resulting from manual materials handling?

It is probably fair to say that every worker who lifts or does other manual handling tasks is at some risk for musculoskeletal injury. Low back injury is the most likely kind of injury. The complete elimination of this risk is not realistic. However, organizations can reduce the number and the severity of manual handling-related injuries by using safe work practices.
How can we prevent back injury resulting from MMH (manual material handling)?
To prevent occupational back injuries, it is essential to identify the factors of MMH that make the worker more susceptible to injury or that directly contribute to injury.
When efforts to prevent injuries from MMH focus on only one risk factor, they do not significantly reduce the injury rate. A more successful approach combines knowledge of ergonomics, engineering, the work environment, and human capabilities and limitations. The following aspects should be considered:
  • organization of work flow
  • job design/redesign (including the work environment)
  • pre-placement procedures, where necessary
  • education and training

The design or redesign of jobs involving MMH should be approached in the following stages:
  • eliminate heavy MMH
  • decrease MMH demands
  • reduce stressful body movements
  • pace of work and rest breaks
  • improve environmental conditions
How do you eliminate heavy MMH?
Consider using powered or mechanical handling systems if eliminating the MMH tasks completely is not possible. Mechanical aids lower the risk for back injury by reducing the worker's physical effort required to handle heavy objects.

Manual handling such as lifting and carrying can be easier and safer if mechanized by using lift tables, conveyors, yokes or trucks. Gravity dumps and chutes can help in disposing of materials. However, it is essential that the worker is properly educated and trained in the safe use of the available equipment.
How can we decrease MMH demands?
Where possible, use mechanical aids. The next step is to decrease the manual material handling demands. There are several ways to achieve this:
  • Plan the work flow. Often poor planning of the work flow results in repeated handling of the same object (e.g., when articles are temporarily stored in one place, moved to another, stored again, and moved again).
  • Decrease the weight of handled objects to acceptable limits.
  • Reduce the weight by assigning two people to lift the load or by splitting the load into two or more containers. Using light plastic containers may also decrease the weight of the load versus other containers.
  • Change the type of MMH movement. Lowering objects causes less strain than lifting. Pulling objects is easier than carrying. Pushing is less demanding than pulling.
  • Change work area layouts. Reducing the horizontal and vertical distances of lifting substantially lowers MMH demands. Reducing the travel distances for carrying, pushing or pulling also decreases work demands.
  • Assign more time for repetitive handling tasks. More time reduces the frequency of handling and allows for more work/rest periods.
  • Alternate heavy tasks with lighter ones to reduce the build-up of fatigue
How can we reduce stressful body movements in MMH?
It is important that the design of MMH allows the worker to do tasks without excessive reaching, bending, and twisting. These body motions are particularly dangerous and can cause back injury even when not combined with handling loads.
  • Provide all materials at a work level that is adjusted to the worker's body size.
  • Eliminate deep shelves to avoid bending.
  • Ensure sufficient space for the entire body to turn.
  • Locate objects within easy reach.
  • Ensure that there is a clear and easy access to the load.
  • Use handles or have a good grip whenever possible.
  • Use slings and hooks to move loads that do not have handles.
  • Balance contents of containers.
  • Use rigid containers.
  • Change the shape of the load so the load can be handled close to the body.

Lifting Technics

Instruction on how to lift "properly" can be a controversial issue. While there are good guidelines there is no single correct way to perform a lift. Because of this fact, on-site, task specific training is essential.
Some general lifting rules include:
  • Prepare to lift by warming up the muscles.
  • Stand close to the load, facing the way you intend to move.
  • Use a wide stance to gain balance.
  • Ensure a good grip on the load.
  • Keep arms straight.
  • Tighten abdominal muscles.
  • Tuck chin into the chest.
  • Initiate the lift with body weight.
  • Lift the load close to the body.
  • Lift smoothly without jerking.
  • Avoid twisting and side bending while lifting.
  • Do not perform the lift if you are not certain that you can handle the load safely.

It is also important that workers:
  • Take advantage of rest periods to relax tired muscles; this rest prevents fatigue from building up.
  • Report discomforts experienced during work; reporting will help to identify hazards and correct working conditions.
  • Know how to recognize a MMH hazard and report concerns.

Finally, there is an aspect of training that cannot be overlooked if training is to be part of an effective prevention program. 

Workers should be educated that muscles, tendons and ligaments are not prepared to meet the physical stress of handling tasks when they are not "warmed up." Pulls, tears or cramps are more likely when stretched or contracted suddenly under such conditions. These injuries can lead to more serious and permanent injury if physically stressful work is continued. Warming up and mental readiness for physically demanding tasks are important for any kind of MMH, but particularly for occasional tasks where the worker is not accustomed to handling loads.

Pushing and Pulling

Are there any "limits" for the amount of force one should exert?
Because of the complex nature of body motion during pushing and pulling, no numerical standard has yet been developed that can be directly applied in industry.

Many factors affect the amount of force that a worker can develop in a horizontal push and pull:
  • body weight and strength
  • height of force application
  • direction of force application
  • distance of force application from the body
  • different positions (standing, kneeling, overhead, and seated)
  • posture (bending forward or leaning backward)
  • friction coefficient (amount of friction or grip between floors and shoes)
  • duration and distance of push or pull